In the story of the three baseball umpires, two novice umpires compete in boasting how they respect #65533;truth#65533; and the way things #65533;really#65533; are. One says, #65533;I call them the way I see them#65533;; the other, trying to trump this remark, responds, #65533;I call them the way they are#65533;. Then enters the third, most seasoned umpire, saying, #65533;They aren't, until I call them#65533;. This book deals with two widely argued issues in literature criticism today, performativity and subjectivity. How do people become who they are? What scripts do they follow when they #65533;do#65533; gender, race, and sexuality? Tying into speech act theories and subjectivity theories, as well as gender, race, and sexuality studies, the author explores - through the close reading of several American texts - the many ways words make #65533;things#65533; in literature.